Some nations weren’t even conscious that the rules existed, his group reported. Others lacked legal guidelines very important to responding to outbreaks, corresponding to these authorizing quarantines.

Changing these rules would require “negotiations for years,” Dr. Wieler mentioned, noting that the newest set took a decade to finalize. Instead, one in every of his committee’s main suggestions was to enhance nations’ accountability for their obligations, together with although a pandemic treaty and a periodic evaluate of their preparedness that will contain different nations.

The impartial panel additionally proposed creating a global council led by heads of state to hold consideration on well being threats and to oversee a multibillion-dollar financing program that governments would contribute to primarily based on their capacity. It would promise fast payouts to nations contending with a brand new outbreak, giving them an incentive to report.

“There’s only going to be the political will to create those things when something catastrophic happens,” mentioned Dr. Mark Dybul, one in every of the panel members. These suggestions stemmed partially from his expertise main the President’s Emergency Program for AIDS Relief, referred to as Pepfar, and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, he mentioned.

But Dr. Wieler, who led the different worldwide evaluate, mentioned that generally, creating new establishments slightly than specializing in enhancing current ones might enhance prices, complicate coordination and harm the W.H.O.

The suggestions of panels after international emergencies have generally been embraced. The Ebola outbreak of 2014 and 2015 led to the creation of the W.H.O.’s well being emergencies program, aimed toward boosting the company’s position in managing well being crises in addition to offering technical steering. A report released this month famous that the new program had obtained “increasingly positive feedback” from nations, donors and associate businesses because it managed dozens of well being and humanitarian emergencies.

The W.H.O. earlier than the Ebola outbreak and after it are “two different agencies basically,” mentioned Dr. Joanne Liu, a former worldwide president of Doctors Without Borders and a member of the impartial panel. Dr. Liu was one in every of the W.H.O.’s most trenchant critics throughout the Ebola response, and he or she famous a “marked improvement” in how shortly the company had declared a global emergency this time.

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